In spite of the growth of functional training on the internet, there are still very few places where you can be taught how to squat and lift weights properly in London.

 Here are some materials that could help, but, do get hold of Andrew@crossfitlondonuk.com to get your dead lift and squat fixed . A couple of Pt sessions could fix the worst of your faults

 Is Successful Strength Training like Marriage ?

Successful Strength raining like marriage  is measured in years not  weeks or months

Pay attention to the basics . Lift often, lift heavy (5 plus,, but vary from 5 to 1)  be happy with small increases. Every relationship or  “thing”  in your life requires consistency

Don’t panic if  you plateau.

In what other part of  (real) human existence  do we expect to have increases all the time . We can tamper with economics and pretend we have yearly growth:  some  NHS workers ( apparently ) get a  grade increase each year , but that always. always  unravels. “Maybe not today, maybe not tomorrow…….’

The hall marks of successful  strength training  (marriage) is patience and maturity: watch for the opportunity to improve but don’t obsess., be happy with consolidation,  treasure consistency and above all, be confident enough to rest and take it easy.

Eat well and sleep well

Bear in mind  that all advanced programming is dedicated to one phenomenon, failure.   Many marriages fail because one partner isn’t happy with the perfection they have, and instead   indulges in fantasy . Don’t let the strength porn of a few gifted ( psychotic) individuals deprave and corrupt your  normal image of how things are.

Failure is rushing at  fantasy  target too hard and fast.

Having preached consistency, it’s equally essential to mix it up and be creative. Add some strongman training, add  and vary assistance exercises.

Variety has always been the spice of life   But variety is still just a spice. It makes the fundamentals seem a bit different that’s all. It still needs the fundamentals/

In short, don’t see strength as something geeky or the preserve of experts. See it as the perfect romance or marriage, demanding consistent loyalty commitment and work , along with romance and variation.

So to be successful, research how to be romantic and simply build it into your strength regime

 

The Prilepin Table

Post image for The Prilepin Table
Assuming you get to a decent gym, that allows your to do some barbell movements, how do you go about developing the strength you so long for? The reality is that the average Gym instructor may know  a bit about hypertrophy ( " 3 sets of 10 mate!") but thats about it. Sitting in a Globo gym among a pile of machines does that to people. Its tragic. But, lets say, you have something heavy and you want to lift it, how many sets, how many reps?


One of the secrets of elite trainers, like me, and the other trainers at Crossfit Londons Blackboard Gym, is that we are quite well read: we look at British, American and Russian  strength training literature. ( mind you, if  Tabata is Japanese, add Japanese literature to that list).An interesting piece of research was carried out by   soviet Sports scientist, AS Prilepin, who studied the training logs of  1000 leading weightlifting champions .The table below  is an averaging of these logs and shows the % of 1 rep max , the amount of reps performed per set,  the optimal amount of reps per workout, and   the range of reps used indicated by the research. This table is specifically for gaining maximal strength

 

The Crossfit London Prilepin Table: www.crossfitlondonuk.com
Intensity
Reps per set
Recommended optimal Total of Reps
Range of reps seen in research
Below 70%
3 - 6
24
18-30
70 - 79%
3 - 6
18
12 - 24
80 - 89%
2 - 4
15
10 - 20
90% and above
1 - 2
7
4 - 10

There are ofcourse a few points worthy of mention. These tables were extracted from the training journals of olympic weight lifters and its possible to argue that this would not apply to other lifts ( the slower lifts like the squat, deadlift press etc).

This also assumes you have a reliable 1 rep max figure, and for that matter, an up to date one.

What I don't know ( and if anyone does , please let me know) does he use the idea of a 1 rep max as your best ever lift. If you look at Zatsiorsky and Kraemer, they establish a difference between a training max and a competition 1 rep max. They suggest that the difference is about 12.5%  +/- 2.5% in  superior weightlifters. The further make the distinction that a training max is  a load you lift with no emotional arousal which can be monitored by your heart rate. If someone says, lift that weight, and your heart rate zooms up in anticipation, that load is  (probably)  above your training max. This  ,ofcourse, assumes some experience. Stopping the average sedentary person and saying, lift that weight, will probably get most people heart rate up!

These tables and information are, of course a snap shot. Im not discussing long term fatigue, issues of scheduling. Yet.

 

 

Strength training is an essential part of your fitness regime. If you are not doing any, you are not fit. Here are some interesting ideas about how strength training could be viewed from a Crossfit Games perspective

 

The ultimate challenge of fitness?

The Crossfit Games is a unique challenge that purports to test the genuine all round fitness of the competing athletes (Crossfit, 2009).

The Games are based on the controversial Crossfit Protocols (Cooperman, 2005) which aims to keep its practitioners in a perpetual state of readiness. The training protocols claim to prepare their athletes to be ready for any challenge (Glassman, 2002). The implication is that the Games are an opportunity to demonstrate how fit an individual normally is, not how well they are prepared for a specific event.

The events are not declared in advance but are loosely based on the mix of high intensity, strength and aerobic conditioning posted on the Crossfit main site called the Workout of the Day (WOD). An analysis of the workouts suggests that competency is required in, at least 32 separate skills (see below) drawn from various Olympic sports, weightlifting, gymnastic and track events. Competence, if not dominance, is also required in every energy system.

The problem with periodization

It is increasingly popular to discuss and advocate methods of programming training, in particular periodization. A periodized strength training programme is one which varies on a regular basis in order to bring about optimal short and long term gains (Fleck, 1999).

Whilst overload and specifity are frequently promoted as the dominant principles of training, experience shows that regimes based on these principles generally fail.

This failure can be attributed to a mix of loss of motivation, as well as negative neural and hormonal changes. Hakkinen (1989) noted that performance improvements could be related to enhanced electromyogram activity, serum testosterone levels and anabolic/catabolic hormone ratios (or endocrine balance). They noted that intense exercise can provoke and then decrease neural and endocrine reactions (fatigue). However, one day's rest could restore the balance, in some circumstances. As such, a variable programme can reduce the possibility of overtraining.

The variables that can be manipulated are:

  • number of sets
  • number of reps
  • number of exercises performed
  • rest periods
  • resistance used
  • type of muscle action (concentric eccentric, isometric)

(From Fleck, 1999)

However, intensity and volume are two frequently over used variables. Intensity refers to the weight lifted (Poliquin, 2008). The reality is that as intensity goes up the volume goes down, and vice versa.

It is worth noting the actual results of Kleck's (1999) review. The fact that a protocol works in strength sports does not prove its success elsewhere. Periodized programmes will tend to have multiple sets, so will always have more volume than single set protocols. Many studies use untrained individuals who experience rapid improvement in strength gains. Willoughby (1993) only noted superior strength gains in the periodized group in week 8 (of 16) when the training volume was significantly reduced compared to two control groups which had a 5 x10 and 6 x8 protocol.

However, Fleck (1999) concludes that periodized programs can result in greater strength gains than non-periodized, multi-set and single set programmes; manipulation of training volume was identified as a contributing factor. Nevertheless, few studies have evaluated motor performance, body composition and short term endurance. Due to the trainability of novices, periodized programmes may not be needed in the earlier stages.

Irrespective of Fleck's much quoted review paper, a critical reading of the periodization literature reveals that programming for training is far from agreed, on any level.

Whilst it is common to quote Hans Seyles' ideas as the underpinning rational of current periodization, the acceptance of his generalized theories is far from complete. Some view his work as converting science into mere sound bites, as his expertise in experimental pathology was, apparently, matched by his excellence as a media manipulator with an eye for a story and a headline (Weissmann, 2007).

The role of stress proteins

Frequently overlooked is the growing body of work on stress proteins, heat shock proteins and stress response (Locke & Noble, 2002), that apparently inspired the infamous high intensity Bulgarian protocol designed by Abadhiev (1999). Recent advances have shown that the protective uses of heat stress proteins can be provoked during high intensity exercise (Murlasits, 2006).

Ivan Abadhiev's Bulgarian training model is note-worthy as it flew in the face of periodization theory by constantly stressing the body and forcing it into a 'stress response' state with the intention of activating stress proteins. This resulted in high volume and high intensity training sessions, with frequent staged competitions.

It appears that exercise is capable of provoking a stress response; once activated, stress proteins can accumulate in certain tissues. The exact significance of increased stress proteins, and the mechanism(s) by which exercise induces them and confers protection at the cellular level, has not been determined.

Other theories on programming

Other planning ideologies that have influenced training design have included photo-periods, biorhythms and the idea that extend training is simply not needed. The design of training schedules have been pushed and pulled between theory, playing season schedules, physiological theories, resource allocation and politics (Wilson and Wilson, 2009)

Periodization, as a theory was essentially pulled together by Matveyev (1977), whose approach armed the systems with laws, and more importantly a quasi-scientific language of its own. In essence, he decided to manipulate volume and intensity as ways of over-coming fatigue. This theory has been criticized as being based on poor understanding of the methods of advanced athlete preparation, speculative assessment of theoretical concepts, limited biological knowledge and limited use of other sciences (Verhoshansky, 1998).

Siff (2003) suggests that later in his life, Matveyev had reservations about Periodization. These included the possibility that an athlete could be kept in a permanent optimal state. Siff (2003) ultimately suggests that the key could be variation. Citing theories from Vorobyev and Ermakov, the common theme is variation, not just in intensity and volume.

Variability: the new periodization?

The above does not undermine the variability of planning training regimes, but it seems that 'variability' may be the key to avoiding overtraining (Garhammer & Takano, 2002) rather than the malleable term periodization.

Training plans can be based on a complex training system which according to Siff (2003) involve parallel and concurrent use of different training targets. It can be argued that overtraining is brought on by repetition, whereas a multifaceted plan and schedule can be self supporting.

Whilst acknowledging this may not be optimal with highly qualified athletes with known specialist events, Plisk and Stone (2003) looked towards game theory to enhance training effectiveness for specialist athletes by planning for unpredictability.

There are numerous components of fitness to be enhanced, and for every component to be developed the plan must be self varying. The WODs and skill sessions need to regularly cover the 32 core skills.

However the skills are "strength" skills and are practised in high repetition multiples in the WODs and skill sessions in CrossFit. There is no 'general preparation phase' as described by Matveyev (1977), as the moves are the same throughout all phases.

CrossFit training at CrossFit London

Crossfit London plans to attempt to balance the effects of concurrent training but accepts the reduction in possible strength gains (Dolezal & Potteiger 1998) against the loss of high intensity.

Our strength sessions will be multi-joint based, and focused on a sub-set of major lifts i.e. squats, deadlifts and presses.

Within this system, there need not be long-term dedicated exclusive fitness component period blocks. As Zatsiorsky & Kraemer (2006) would put it: there will be no need for accumulation mesocycles, nor the associated transmutative mesocylces which convert fitness gains into specific athlete preparedness. To an extent our  athletes will be in a permanent realizational mesocycle.

Many trainers plan solid blocks of activities per microcycle. According to Zatsiorsky & Kraemer (2006) it is quite possible to have two or three main targets per micro cycle

The selection of the one to five intensity range is clinically based and supported by many studies (Ahtianinen et al, 2005, 2004, 2003, Campos et al 2003). According to Poliquin (2008) even in the competitive phase of Bulgarian elite lifters, lifts of 90% were low volume and only 13% of total lifts. These lifts are aimed at improving neural drive without extra muscle mass.

As the nervous system takes five to six times longer to recover than the muscular system (Chiu et al 2004) the inclusion of strength session and a WOD in the same session can be quite fatiguing.

The use of multiple sets should lead to higher and faster rates of strength gains (Benson, et a.l, 2006).

Time under tension, tempo and rest intervals

An increasingly advanced approach is to look at the concept of time under tension. For relative strength, the time under tension per set should not exceed 20 seconds per set. Tempo is another critical and often overlooked variable (Abdessemed et al., 1999, Gentil, et al., 2006)

Inter- and intra- set rest intervals is rarely mentioned, but are a function of the range of motion (Willard son & Burkett, 2005) the neurological complexity of the exercise (Chiu et al., 2004), the prescribed tempo (Willard and Burkett, 2005), and the athletes training age (Kawamori and Haff, 2004).

During a competitive phase, the rest periods can shortened to increase intensity. On the shorter reps as long as the time under tension remains under 20 seconds, pausing in an advantageous isometric position can recruit high threshold motor units (Debrosses, et al., 2006).

If the athlete seems over trained or over fatigued the amount of sets are reduced, not the intensity (Chiu, et al., 2004,)

The underpinning concept is balancing optimal stress and restoration (Siff, 2003)

Conculsion

However to thoroughly understand our regime you will need to see the golden thread; strength gains can be enhanced in skill and WOD sessions. Contributions are made to the deadlift movement for example,  by the lift itself, back extensions, good morning and a sledge drag. Many of these skills are carried out under high intensity conditions which are equally capable of improving relative strength (Zatsiorsky & Kraemer, 2006).

Ultimately all training is an experiment carried out against current good practice.

Given the nature of the competition, in particular the lack of age allowance, it is unlikely that I will be able to qualify, but over the next year, observation and recording of my reaction to training will help future planning exercises.

References

Aagaard Simonsen Anderson Magnusson Dyhre-Poulsen 2000 neural inhibition during maximal eccentric and concentric quadriceps contraction: effects of resistance training. Journal of applied Physiology 89(6):2249-57

Abadzhiev 1999 interview http://www.chidlovski.net/liftup/a_interview_abadzhiev_111999.asp

Abdessemed et al 1999 effect of recovery duration on muscular power and blood lactate during the bench press exercise international journal of sports medicine 20( 6) 368 73

ahiamine et al 2003 muscle hypertrophy, hormonal adaptations and strength development during strength training in strength-trained and untrained men. European Journal of applied Physiology; 89 96) 555-63

Ahtiainen JP 2005 short vs. long rest period between the sets in hypertrophy resistance training: influence on muscule srtength size and hormonal adaptations in trained men. Journal of strength and conditioning research 19 (3) 572 82

Baker, D., G. Wilson, and R. Carlyon. Periodization: The effect on strength of manipulating volume and intensity. J. Strength Cond. Res. 8:235-242. 1994

Benson , Docherty Brandenburg 2006 Acute neuromuscular responses to resistance training performed at different loads. Journal of sports science and medicine 9(1-2) 135-42.

Chiu, Fry Schilling, Johnson Weiss, 2004 Neuromuscular fatique and potentiation following two successive high intensity resistance exercise sessions. European Journal of applied Physiology 92 (4-5) 385- 92.

Chek paul 2002 Program design a correspondence course cites Jerry Telle 1995 from "beyond 2001 the next=2 0real step. New approaches to scientific training for the advanced body builder.
Edict Denver Co

Cooperman S (2005).The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/22/fashion/thursdaystyles/22Fitness.html?_r=1

Crossfit 2009 drawn from http://games2008.crossfit.com/ accessed early August 2009

Desbrosses Babault scaglioni meyer Pousson 2006 neural activation after maximal isometric contractions at different muscle lengths. Medicine and science in sports and exercise: 38 (5) 937-44

Dolezal & potteiger 1998 Concurrent resistance and endurance training influence basal metabolic rate in nondieting individuals. Journal of applied physiology 85:695- 700.

Fleck Steven,1999 Periodized Strength Training: a Critical Review. Journal of Strength and conditioning Re search 13(1) 82-89

Glassman Greg 2002 http://journal.crossfit.com/2002/04/foundations.tpl
Accessed 15 August 2009

Garhammer and Tanako 2002 training for weightlifting chap 25. in Strength and Power in Sport, ed PV Komi vol 3 page 502-53

Kraemer, W.J. A series of studies-The physiological basis for strength training in American football: Fact over philosophy. J. Strength Cond. Res. 11:131-142. 1997.

Gentil et al 2006 time under tension and blood lactate response during four different resistance training methods. Japan Society of physiological anthropology 25 (5) 339-44

Gregor, R.F. Zernicke, W. Whiting, eds. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 1989. pp. 889-894.

Fleck Steven,1999 Periodized Strength Training: a Critical Review. Journal of Strength and conditioning Research 13(1) 82-89
Hakkinen, K., A. Pakarinen, P.V. Komi, T. Ryushi, and H. Kaukanen. Neuromuscular adaptations and hormone balance in strength athletes, physically active males and females=2 0during intensive strength training. In. Proceedings of the XII International Congress of Biomechanics

Haddock and Wilkin 2006 resistance training volume and post exercise energy expenditure international journal of sports medicine 27(2) :143 -8

Kawamori & Haff 2004 the optimal training load for the development of muscular power. Journal of strength and conditioning research. 18 (3): 675-84

Locke M & Noble Eds 2002 Exercise and stress response accessed at http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=qWlNaQ-xPRkC&pg=PA6&lpg=PA6&dq=high+stress+proteins+exercise&source=bl&ots=2YxEtg1cuS&sig=l5huOz_2iV7WLZ49b4K05xaqbz8&hl=en&ei=vMx9StqqFJXVjAeg-KzzAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4#v=onepage&q=high%20stress%20proteins%20exercise&f=false

McGee, D., T.C. Jessee, M.H. Stone, and D. Blessing. Leg and hip endurance adaptations to three weight-training programs. J. Appl. Sport Sci. Res. 6:92-95. 1992.

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Murlasits Z, Cutlip RG, Geronilla KB, Rao KM, Wonderlin WF, Alway SE. 2006
Experimental Gerontolology. Fast contracting muscles in young and old animals are capable of increasing HSP expression in response to high intensity contractile stress.
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O'Bryant, H.S., R. Byrd, and M.H. Stone. Cycle ergometer performance and maximum leg and hip strength adaptations to two different methods of weight-training. J. Appl. Sport Sci. Res. 2:27-30. 1988.

Plisk SS Stone M (2003) "Periodisation Strategies" Strength and conditioning journal 23(6) 19-37

Poliuin C 2008Poliquin International Certification=2 0program level 1. Theory 1 manual.

Siff M 2004 super training super training institute denver usa 2004 6th edition
Sale, D.G. Neural adaptations to strength training. In. Strength and Power in Sport. P.V. Komi, ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific. 1992. pp. 249-265.

Stone, M.H., H. O'Bryant, and J. Garhammer. A hypothetical model for strength training. J. Sports Med. 21:342-351. 1981.

Stowers,20T., J. McMillian, D. Scala, V. Davis, D. Wilson, and M. Stone. The short-term effects of three different strength-power training methods. Natl. Strength Cond. Assoc. J. 5:24-27. 1983.

Weissmann 2007 The experimental pathology of stress:Hans Seyle to Paris Hilton. FASEB Journal vol 21 page 263 6 http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/reprint/21/11/2635.pdf accessed on line 3rd August

Willard and Burkett 2005a comparison of 3 different rest intervals on the exercise volume completed during a workout.Journal of strength and conditioning research 19 (1):23 -6

Wilson and Wilson 2009 Periodization Part 1 History and Physiological basis accessed at http://www.abcbodybuilding.com/periodization1.pdf

Willoughby, D.S. The effects of meso-cycle-length weight training programs involving periodization and partially equated volumes on upper and lower body strength. J. Strength Cond. Res. 7:2-8. 1993.

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Zatsiorsky & kraemer 2006 Science ad practice of Strength training 2nd ed human kinetics champaign il

The CrossFit Games workouts, 2009 Games

  1. a 7k trail run
  2. Deadlift burpee combination
  3. Sandbag sprint 2 x 35lb male, 1 x 35lb for women
  4. 500m row sledge hammer stake drive, 500m row
  5. 3 rounds 30 wall balls, 30 squat snatches 35kg

Final heat of:

  • 15 barbell cleans, 155llb
  • 30 toes to bar
  • 30 box jumps
  • 15 muscle ups
  • 30 push presses 40kg
  • 30 double unders
  • 15 thrusters 135
  • 30 pull ups
  • 30 burpees
  • 300′ 20kg Overhead walking lunges

Crossfit moves

Analysing historical work-outs, the following moves and reps can be anticipated:

  • Pull ups : kipping appears as 21, 15, 9, and sets of 30, 50 and 100. L sit pull ups in 10's
  • Dips 21
  • Muscle ups 30 for time
  • Handstand push ups 21
  • Push ups 50 an d 200
  • Runs 400m
  • 800m
  • 5k
  • 10k
  • 15k
  • 1k with 10kg
  • Thrusters 42.5 21. 15,9
  • Air squat, tabata 20. 50, 100
  • Overhead squat
  • Front squat
  • Deadlift 100kg 21, 15, 9
  • Push press,
  • Push jerk
  • Wall ball (10kg wall to 10ft target) 20, 30, 50 150
  • Box jumps 50, 20 x 3
  • Row 250, 500, 1000 2k
  • Snatch 60kg x 30
  • Clean 70kg
  • one leg squat
  • GDH sit ups 50
  • GDH back extentions 50 x 3
  • Hang power clean 155kg x9 reps
  • Walking lunges 400m, 15 reps
  • knees to elbows 40
  • Rope climb 15ft x3
  • Double unders 50
  • Body weight bench press max
  • Burpees 40, 30, 20, 10
  • Kettlebells
  • 16kg 50 swings
  • 25kg 21 swings x 3
  • 32 kgs 8 swings x 15